Reading Knuth's Art Of Computer Programming series is still not a bad substitute for an undergraduate computer science degree. The most essential volume remains the first:
Fundamental Algorithms, by Donald Knuth, Addison-Wesley 1973.
(Real Hackers(TM) can be recognized by the well-thumbed copies of all three volumes of this series above their desk.)
The above is without question getting somewhat dated, although I can't help feeling that it gains in historical value at least as much as it loses in currency...
A more contemporary treatment may be found in:
Algorithms, by Robert Sedgewick, Addison-Wesley 1983, ISBN 0-201-06672-6.
Naturally, it was typeset using TeX!
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